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cheap canada goose uk Hangin on in the wind: Natural selection, hurricanes, and lizardsAt the Anolis Symposium at Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in March, one of the stars of the show was Colin Donihue of Harvard University, who gave a talk on the effect of last fall canada goose outlet in new york Hurricane Irma on Anolis scriptus, the endemic (and only native) anole of the Turks and Caicos. Colin and collaborators had chanced to visit and measure the morphology of the lizards just before the hurricane struck, and were able to return within weeks to see what had happened.And something had happened. After Irma, the lizards had bigger toepads, longer canada goose outlet washington dc arms, and shorter hind legs. The first two changes made sense bigger toepads and longer arms are known to increase clinging ability in anoles but the third seemed contrary to the first two. Longer legs would help them cling to the vegetation, and thus prevent them from being blown against the rocks or out to sea so why did the ones with shorter legs survive better?It was Colin exploration of this last question that made canada goose factory outlet vancouver his talk one of the hits of the canada goose outlet store uk Symposium. In order to see the effect of Irma on the lizards, they used a garden leaf blower canada goose outlet legit to simulate high winds, and recorded it all on video!The video above is from Nature (not what Colin showed us in March), where the canada goose vest outlet paper by Colin and colleagues will soon appear (already available online; there also a nice account of the field work by Colin at his website). What they have surmised, based on their leaf blower experiments, is that the hind canada goose outlet ontario legs of the lizards, once they lost their grip on a perch, act as catching the wind, and thus carrying the poor lizard away. surprised me was that the lizards held on to the last with their arms I would have thought that they would grasp with all fours, and that the hind legs, having a greater toepad surface area, canada goose outlet price would give out last. canada goose outlet in chicago Perhaps the wind caught their (larger) hind legs around the perch, and forced them off first, presaging the eventual cause of blowing away altogether. As expected during a round of directional selection, the variances of traits generally decreased. Also, the body condition of the lizards was good they weren starving after the hurricane, supporting the idea that the differential mortality occurred at the time of the storm.So, what we have here is a nice demonstration of natural selection, and a plausible, experimentally supported cause of the differential survival. But it is important to note that this is not a demonstration of evolution by natural selection, and the reason for that is interesting, and relates to the fact that evolutionary biologists use the term selection in a number of contexts.While natural selection is a major cause of evolution, as Fisher noted in the first sentence of his Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Selection is not Evolution. A short definition of natural selection, and one that I have used in canada goose outlet classes and in print canada goose http://www.canadagoosecanadaoutlet.com clothing uk is that natural selection is differential survival and reproduction of heritable variants. That this does not equate to evolution by natural selection can be readily seen in the case of heterozygote advantage, such as sickle cell hemoglobin in malarial environments. In such cases, the result of natural selection is that the genetic composition of the population doesn change rather, it reaches an equilibrium, and stays there. There no evolution.But there another sense in which natural selection does not imply evolution, and that is the sense used in quantitative canada goose womens outlet genetics, and also very often in studies of changes in quantitative phenotypic traits (such as the study under discussion). The heritability is where genetics comes in the variants that are hereditary have a (non zero) canada goose outlet uk sale heritability.The structure of the breeder equation flows naturally from how breeders work. Then, they breed it. Finally, they check to see how much of the desirable variation is present in the offspring. desirable), then heritability is 100% or 1.0. If the offspring have only half the desirable advantage of the parent (say, being 4 ozs. larger than average, as opposed to 8 ozs. larger in the selected parents), then the heritability is 50% or.5. So in these two cases, selection leads to evolution. So where the problem?The problem, or rather conceptual subtlety, is that the heritability may be 0 the offspring of the selected parents may not differ at all from the general mean of the population. Thus we can have selection, but no response to selection, and thus no evolution. So, although natural selection is often defined as I did above (consistent differential survival and reproduction of heritable variants), it is often the case that we can measure the differential survival before we know whether or not the variation is hereditary. And that what the breeder equation captures the two step nature of differential first, inheritance second.The same two step sequence of observation often applies in nature as canada goose outlet buffalo well as on the farm or in the lab, and thus, selection is often used in the sense of the differential, with the heritability evaluated separately (as it usually must be, since the observation of a phenotypic difference does not generally imply anything, one way or the other, about heritability). no reproduction had occurred the second set of measurements were taken on lizards that had lived through the hurricane. A similar advantage accrued to the classic studies of natural selection in Darwin finches by the Grants and their collaborators. The Grants had the additional advantage that their birds were individually marked, so that the individual identities of surviving birds were known; on the Turks and Caicos, the same generation of adult lizards was sampled before and after the hurricane, and some individuals might indeed have been measured both times, but as the lizards were unmarked, individuals cannot be followed over time. This could be complicated canada goose outlet jackets by the fact that, with the selective environmental force (Irma) now gone, there may be directional natural selection back toward the previous trait means. Thus, measuring the persistence of the observed change may be confounded by canada goose outlet online store further changes occurring. As in the Darwin finches studies, a multi year approach is canada goose jacket outlet called for.The lizard traits that were studied are likely to canada goose outlet store toronto be at least moderately heritable, official canada goose outlet as morphological features such as these are usually found to be so. There have been few studies of heritability in anoles, and there have been conflicting results. Using common garden experiments, Shane Campbell Staton has found that critical thermal maximum, a physiological trait, is heritable in Anolis carolinensis; but Mike Logan has recently reported that heritability was low for other thermally related traits in Anolis sagrei. Studies of the heritability of morphological traits in anoles should be a fruitful area of inquiry. One advantage the Grants had is that, using the information on pedigrees provided by individual marking, they measured the heritabilities of a number of quantitative canada goose outlet miami phenotypic traits in the populations of Darwin finches they have studied. Edwards, and J B. Losos. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 29:2168 2180. Herrel, A. C. Fabre, A. Losos. 2018. Hurricane induced selection on the morphology canada goose outlet shop of an island lizard. canada goose outlet edmonton Nature in press. 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Grant. 2014. 40 Years of Evolution: Darwin’s Finches on Daphne Major Island. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Cox. 2018. Thermal physiology and thermoregulatory behaviour exhibit low heritability despite genetic divergence between lizard populations. canada goose outlet reviews Proceedings of the Royal Society B 285 (1878): 20180697. Craig. 2013. Theory of evolution. pp. Levin, ed. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2nd ed., volume 3, Academic Press, Waltham, Mass.Thank you very much for this, Greg I especially appreciate these explanations of scientific topics that appear here. And while I know I have to go over the subtleties of the natural selection, evolution, and heritability section again to get it firmer in mind, I really appreciate the way your exposition goes from the particular case of the windblown lizards, to the general concepts and canada goose outlet england then back to the lizards (and Grants finches)to illustrate those concepts. The last paragraphs seemed especially helpful to me (provided, of course that I not completely misunderstanding the whole thing, anyway).I agree with that hypothesis. And also, it just seems more to try to stay head into wind notice how the lizards manage to hang on with their front feet for quite a while. In that position they probably experiencing less canada goose outlet florida total wind force on their bodies than they did in the all four feet hanging on, broadside position.If they let go with their front legs first, they would then be doubled back in an unnatural shape but still broadside to the wind, so I imagine they would lose their hind feet grip very quickly. canada goose outlet online uk They probably know this, which is why they devote most effort to their front feet grip. Well, not really broadside, more like broad bottom, but I can think of a succinct word canada goose outlet ottawa for it.Long legs may link to a whole system of other traits that are advantageous [eg long legged anoles are brainier or better at smelling] cheap canada goose uk.